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Doctor Examining Pregnant Woman


Third Party Reproduction


The phrase “third-party reproduction” refers to involving someone other than the individual or couple that plans to raise the child (Intended parent[s]) in the process of reproduction. This includes using donated eggs, sperm, or embryos and gestational-carrier arrangements, in which the pregnancy is carried by someone other than the intended parent(s). Surrogacy, also sometimes referred to as a traditional gestational carrier, is a particular type of gestational-carrier arrangement where the woman who carries the pregnancy also provides the egg. Unless specifically indicated, the term gestational carrier in this booklet will refer to a woman who carries a pregnancy but has no genetic link to the fetus.

Egg donation is often used for women whose ovaries have either been surgically removed or are functioning poorly. The poor function can be due to premature menopause, severe diminished ovarian reserve, medical disorders, or exposure to toxins like chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Egg donation also is appropriate for women who were born without ovaries.

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