TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration)
TESA Treatment is similar to a needle biopsy but involves placing a needle attached to a syringe through the skin of the scrotum and simply sucking out the fluid from the testicle.
PESA (Percutaneous Epidydimal Sperm Aspiration)
PESA treatment is a surgical procedure that involves the use of needle and syringe technique as for a needle biopsy, but the needle is directly placed into the epididymis. This often gives good results if there is a blockage in the vas deferens but the testis is producing sperms.
MESA (Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration)
An open surgical sperm retrieval procedure that uses an operating microscope to locate the tubules of the epididymis precisely, so that large numbers of sperm can be extracted.